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1 - S. A. Hoeing, Compressed Gas Magazine, August, 22, 1986.  First paper on carbon dioxide snow cleaning, focus is on particle removal.



1 - W. Whitlock, in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the Fine Particle Society, August, 1989.     First paper using high velocity, double expansion nozzle. offered cleaning statistics and showed over 99.9% submicron particle removal.



1 - L. Layden and D. Wadlow, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Vol. A8, pages 3881-3883, 1990.  Demonstrated successful cleaning on a residual gas analyzer

2 - R. Sherman and W. Whitlock, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Vol. B8, pages 563- 568, 1990.  Paper discusses XPS data on cleaning contaminated Si wafers. 

3 - R. Zito, “Cleaning large optics with CO2 snow”, Proc. SPIE 1236, Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, 952 (1990);  First paper on cleaning telescope mirrors.



1 - R. Sherman, J. Grob and W. Whitlock, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Vol. B9, pages 1970-1977, 1991.  Many examples on different materials.



1 - S. Hoenig and K. Kinkade, Inside ISHM, Jan/Feb., P. 13, 1993 - circuit boards



1 - E. Hill, Precision Cleaning Magazine,  page 36, February, 1994.  Paper on mechanisms and recontamination for the low velocity CO2 cleaning method.

2 - R. Sherman, D. Hirt, R. Vane, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Vol. 12A, pages 1876-1881, 1994.  Various applications, cleaning procedures and role of gas purity.



1 - M. Hills, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Vol. 13A, p. 30, 1995. Organic removal cleaning mechanisms and cleaning procedures. 

2 - M. Hills, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, Vol. 13A, p.412, 1995.  Static charge causes and mechanisms.


1 - S. Walheim, M. Boltau, J.Mlynek, G. Krausch, and U. Steiner, Structure Formation via Polymer Demixing in Spin-Cast Films    Macromolecules 1997, 30, 4995-5003, the first of many papers on polymer adhesion and morphology on Si wafers.


S. H. Goss, L. Grazulis, D. H. Tomich, K. G. Eyink, S. D. Walck, T. W. Haas,

D. R. Thomas, and W. V. Lampert  J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 1998     Mechanical lithography using a single point diamond machining


S. Walheim, R. Müller, M. Sprenger, E. Loser, J. Mlynek, and U. Steiner,  Patterning Self-Assembled Monolayers on Oxide Surfaces Using a Lift-off Technique, Adv. Mater. 1999, 11, No. 17 page 1431  Cleaned substrates and the Self-Assembled monolayer layers. The self adsorbed monolayer remained intact.


T. Pompe, VOLUME 89, NUMBER 7  PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS  12 AUGUST 2002 Line Tension Behavior of a First-Order Wetting System.  Even CO2 cleaning gets mentioned in the premiere physics publication.



D. J. Miller, L. Sun,1 M. J. Walzak1 N. S. Mclntyre, D. Chvedov and A. Rosenfeld, Surf. Interface Anal. 2003; 35: 463–476 First published SIMS studies of carboxylic acids on gold and aluminium–magnesium alloy surfaces

I.C. Gebeshuber *, S. Cernusca, F. Aumayr, HP. Winter, AFM search for slow MCI-produced nanodefects on atomically clean monocrystalline insulator surfaces  Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 205 (2003) 751–757.  Cleaned AL2O3, SiO2 and LiF crystals with CO2.  No reported damage on LiF, which is quite hard to clean.  I wish they gave more details on cleaning as we have had damage to these materials.


E. S. Snow, J. P. Novak, P. M. Campbell, and D. Park, Applied Physics Letters  VOL 82, NUMBER 13 31 2003 P.2145  How to clean a substrate with nanotubes and not remove the nanotubes.



M D Austin, W Zhang, H Ge, D Wasserman, S A Lyon and S Y Chou, Nanotechnology 16 (2005) 1058–1061  6 nm particle removal reported


B Y. Chow, D W. Mosley, and J M. Jacobson, “Perfecting Imperfect “Monolayers”: Removal of Siloxane Multilayers by CO2 Snow Treatment Langmuir 2005, 21, 4782-4785  Showed that CO2 snow cleaning assists in creating self assembled monolayers (SAMs) by removing overlayers and leaving just one monolayer.

Banerjee, S., Lin, C. C., Su, S., Bowers, C., Chung, H. F., Brandt, W., & Tang, K. "Characterization of photomask surface cleaning with cryogenic aerosol technique." Photomask Technology 2005. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2005



J. C. J. van der Donck, R. Schmits, R. E. van Vliet and A. G. T. M. Bastein, “Removal of Sub-100 nm Particles from Structured Substrates with CO2 Snow”, in Proceedings MST Conference Particles on Surfaces 9: “Detection, Adhesion and Removal”. K. L. Mittal (Editor), 291, VSP Leiden and Boston (2006).



R. Sherman, Particulate Science and Technology Vol 25, p. 37-57, 2007.  Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning.  An update and has more references.

L. H. (Hugh) Shockey Jr., Bringing out the “bling”: Decadence in glass, Objects Specialty Group Postprints, Volume Fifteen, 2008, pp. 1-12, American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works,   Art - Glass


Dangwala, G Müller, D. Reschke, K Floettmann, and X Singer,  “Effective removal of field-emitting sites from metallic surfaces by dry ice cleaning”, J. of Applied Physics 102, 044903  (2007).  Cleaned RF resonating chambers.



Morris D.J., “Cleaning of diamond nanoindentation probes with oxygen plasma and carbon dioxide snow”, Review of Scientific Instruments 80, 126102 (2009). Cleaned diamond tip nanoprobes


L. H. Schockey, “Blow it off: Moving beyond compressed air with carbon dioxide snow”, in Objects Specialty Group Postprints, 16, American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Work, Washigton DC, 13-24 (2009). Art


D. A. Chernoff and R. Sherman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. Vol B 28, p. 643 (2010) “Resurrecting dirty atomic force microscopy calibration standards”  How to clean AFM samples,  Saw particle removal to 3 nanometers. No damage to step height standard.  Best shop note in JVST for 2010. 


L. Zhu, P. Attard, and C. Neto, Reliable Measurements of Interfacial Slip by Colloid Probe Atomic Force Microscopy. II. Hydrodynamic Force Measurements, Langmuir 2011, 27, 6712–6719  To quote ”In the future, we suggest that the CO2 snow-jet cleaning procedure should be introduced in all force work. Therefore, particle contamination on the surface may explain the large slip lengths measured in some of our experiments”



 J. T. Hugall, J. J. Baumberg, and S. Mahajan, “Disentangling the Peak and Background Signals in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering”, J. Phys. Chem. C, 116, 6184 (2012)  CO2 snow cleaning led to improved Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering.


N Wang, J D. Zimmerman, X Tong, X Xiao, J Yu, and S R. Forrest , “Snow cleaning of substrates increases yield of large-area organic photovoltaics”, App. Phys. Letts, 101, 133901 (2012).- Cleaned glass ITO coated substrates, better yields.

Talks by R. Sherman and Hugh Shockey are here and Nancy Odegaard's talk is here 


M. Schmeling, D.S. Burnett, J.H. Allton, M. Rodriguez, C.E. Tripa, and I.V. Veryovkin APpplication of CO2 Snow Jet Cleaning in conjunction with laboratory based Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescense for Genesis Solar Wind, 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2013)  Cleaned samples back from space



Taumer, R., Krome, T., Bowers, C., Varghese, I., Hopkins, T., White, R., Brunner, M. and Yi, D., 2014, October. Qualification of local advanced cryogenic cleaning technology for 14nm photomask fabrication. In Photomask Technology 2014 (Vol. 9235, p. 923525).   Photomask cleaning and photomask repair.



M.Y. Kanga, HW Jeong, J  Kim, J Lee, and  J Jang, “Removal of biofilms using carbon dioxide aerosols”, 41 1044 (2010) even e-coli


R. Singh, S Hong , and J Jang, “Mechanical desorption of immobilized proteins using carbon dioxide aerosols for reusable biosensors”, Analytica Chimica Acta 853 588 (2015) - cleaned dirty sensor

R. Sherman, Carbon Dioxide Snow Cleaning Kohli, Rajiv, and Kashmiri L. Mittal, eds. Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning, Vol. 1: Fundamentals and Applied Aspects. William Andrew, 2015. 

A. Vert, T. Orzali, T. Dyer, Ri. Hill, P.Satyavolu, E.Barth, R. Gaylord et al. "Backside and edge cleaning of III–V on Si wafers for contamination free manufacturing." In Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference (ASMC), 2015 26th Annual SEMI, pp. 362-366. IEEE, 2015. Cleaned wafer edges


Feng, Xiaobing, Jonathan Pascal, and Simon Lawes “Development of CO2 snow cleaning for in-situ cleaning of micro-CMM stylus tips” Measurement Science and Technology 28, (2017) 015007  Cleaning micro-CMM probes


S. Jantzen, T. Decarreaux, M. Stein, K. Kniel, and A. Dietzel. "CO2 snow cleaning of miniaturized parts." Precision Engineering 52 (2018): 122-129 - showed CO2 snow is more effective than air blowing and ultrasonics on small machined and cast parts.  

Hoffmann, W. Making Archaeology Cool with Dry Ice Cleaning,  Physics Today, 71, p. 70 (2018)  Dry ice pellets, not snow.


Ngo, N. D., & Jang, J. Long-term measurement of PM2. 5 mass concentration using an electrostatic particle concentrator-based quartz crystal microbalance integrated with carbon dioxide aerosol jets for PM sensing in remote areas. IEEE Access, 9, 90715-90726 (2021) - made an device to CO2 snow clean sensors in a real setting.  

This bibliography on carbon dioxide snow cleaning has been complied to highlight important publications and are mostly peer reviewed papers. We have a bibliography over 26 pages and growing and we will gladly add your work to our list.  Papers and reports from users can be included too. We want them!!! The list below excludes patents and oral presentations except in a few cases


We need input from you, the reader. If you know of a paper, please email the us a copy. We can send some papers and even email you references on specific areas. 



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